Fabrication and Falsification

Fabrication or falsification occurs when a student invents or distorts the origin or content of information used as authority. Examples include:

  • Citing a source that does not exist.
  • Citing information from a source that is not included in the source for which credit is given.
  • Citing a source for a secondary proposition that it does not support.
  • Citing a bibliography source when it was neither consulted nor cited in the body of the paper.
  • Intentionally distorting the meaning or applicability of data.
  • Inventing data or statistical results to support conclusions.